Application Architecture Definitions

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  • #

    client side framework

    There are two sides to web development – the server side and the client side. A server side framework typically uses a programming language with a compiler and runs on a Web server, such as Node, PHP and ASP.NET.

  • A

    API economy

    API economy (application programming interface economy) is a general term that describes the way application programming interfaces (APIs) can positively affect an organization's profitability.

  • API endpoint

    An API endpoint is a point at which an application program interface (API) -- the code that allows two software programs to communicate with each other -- connects with the software program.

  • API management

    API management is the process of overseeing application program interfaces (APIs) in a secure, scalable environment.

  • API security

    API security is an overarching term referring to practices and products that prevent malicious attacks on, or misuse of, application program interfaces (API).

  • API testing

    API testing is a type of software testing that analyzes an application program interface (API) to verify it fulfills its expected functionality, security, performance and reliability.

  • API-centric application

    An API-centric application is a web service that is built using application programming interfaces (APIs) to exchange data with other applications.

  • Apigee

    Apigee, pronounced App-ih-gee, is an API gateway management tool offered by Google to exchange data across cloud services and applications.

  • application architecture

    An application architecture is a map of how an organization's software applications are assembled as part of its overarching enterprise architecture and how those applications interact.

  • application program interface (API)

    An application program interface (API) is code that allows two software programs to communicate with each other.

  • application service provider (ASP)

    An application service provider (ASP) is an old-fashioned name for a company that offers individuals or enterprises internet access to applications and related services.

  • AutoRABIT

    AutoRABIT is an end-to-end release management suite specifically aimed at streamlining the development and release of Salesforce.com applications by automating their continuous integration (CI) and continuous delivery (CD) processes.

  • B

    Ballerina language

    Ballerina language is an open-source, cloud-native programming language designed to ease the burden of integration development associated with enterprise applications.

  • Bean

    In its JavaBeans application program interface for writing a component, Sun Microsystems calls a component a "Bean" (thus continuing their coffee analogy).

  • BPEL (Business Process Execution Language)

    BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) is an XML-based language that enables task-sharing in a distributed computing or grid computing environment. 

  • BSA | The Software Alliance

    BSA | The Software Alliance is an advocate for public policies that foster technology innovation and drive growth in the digital economy. BSA’s policy team works with governments and public stakeholders across the globe to support the global software industry on issues including data privacy and security, intellectual property and trade.

  • business capability

    Business capabilities are one way of representing the highest conceptual-level view of an enterprise architecture.

  • business event management

    Business event management is the practice of incorporating business logic into labeling events, communicating events and handling events... (Continued)

  • Business Process Modeling Language (BPML)

    Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based metalanguage developed by the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) as a means of modeling business processes, much as XML is, itself, a metalanguage with the ability to model enterprise data.

  • business rules engine (BRE)

    A business rules engine (BRE) is a software component that allows non-programmers to add or change business logic in a business process management (BPM) system.

  • business service provider (BSP)

    A business service provider (BSP) is a company that rents third-party software application packages to their customers.

  • C

    choreography

    Choreography, in a Web services context, refers to specifications for how messages should flow among diverse, interconnected components and applications to ensure optimum interoperability... (Continued)

  • class diagram

    A class diagram is an illustration of the relationships and source code dependencies among classes in the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

  • cloud service governance

    Cloud services governance is a general term for applying specific policies or principles to the use of cloud computing services. The goal of cloud services governance is to secure applications and data when they are located remotely.

  • Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)

    Part of Microsoft's .NET strategy, Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) enables an application program written in any of several commonly-used programming languages to be run on any operating system using a common runtime program rather than a language-specific one.

  • componentization (component-based development)

    Componentization is an approach to software development that involves breaking software down into identifiable pieces that application developers independently write and deploy.

  • D

    DAML (DARPA Agent Markup Language)

    DAML (DARPA Agent Markup Language) is a markup language for the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) that is based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML).

  • data dictionary

    A data dictionary is a collection of descriptions of the data objects or items in a data model for the benefit of programmers and others who need to refer to them.

  • data source object (DSO)

    A data source object (DSO) is a Microsoft ActiveX object embedded within a Web page. It employs a process called data binding, in which an ActiveX control communicates directly with another Web page, or with an external XML data source.

  • data type

    A data type, in programming, is a classification that specifies which type of value a variable has and what type of mathematical, relational or logical operations can be applied to it without causing an error.

  • dedicated server

    In the Web hosting business, a dedicated server refers to the rental and exclusive use of a computer that includes a Web server, related software, and connection to the Internet, housed in the Web hosting company's premises.

  • dependency injection

    In object-oriented programming (OOP) software design, dependency injection (DI) is the process of supplying a resource that a given piece of code requires.

  • DIME (Direct Internet Message Encapsulation)

    DIME (Direct Internet Message Encapsulation) is a communications specification that defines a format for attaching files to Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages between application programs over the Internet.

  • DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and Specification Language)

    DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and Specification Language) is a standard for the processing of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) documents.

  • dynamic application security testing (DAST)

    A dynamic application security test (DAST) is a program used by developers to analyze a web application (web app), while in runtime, and identify any security vulnerabilities or weaknesses.

  • dynamic DNS service

    A dynamic DNS (domain name system) service is a company that charges a small fee to allow a user connecting to the Internet with a dynamic IP address to be able to use applications that require a static IP address.

  • E

    EAI (enterprise application integration)

    Enterprise application integration (EAI) is the task of uniting the databases and workflows associated with business applications to ensure that the business uses the information consistently and that changes to core business data made by one application are correctly reflected in others.

  • Eclipse (Eclipse Foundation)

    Eclipse is an open-source Java Integrated Development Environment (IDE) known for its plug-ins that allow developers to develop and test code written in other programming languages.

  • endpoint reference (EPR)

    An endpoint reference (EPR) is a combination of Web services (WS) elements that define the address for a resource in a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) header... (Continued)

  • Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)

    An enterprise service bus (ESB) is a middleware tool used to distribute work among connected components of an application.

  • event

    An event, in a computing context, is an action or occurrence that can be identified by a program and has significance for system hardware or software.

  • event handler

    An event handler is a callback routine that operates asynchronously and handles inputs received into a program... (Continued)

  • event handling

    Event handling is the receipt of an event at some event handler from an event producer and subsequent processes... (Continued)

  • event-driven architecture (EDA)

    An event-driven architecture (EDA) is a framework that orchestrates behavior around the production, detection and consumption of events as well as the responses they evoke.

  • explicit parallelism

    Explicit parallelism is a concept of processor-compiler efficiency in which a group of instructions is sent from the compiler to the processor for simultaneous rather than sequential execution.

  • extensible

    In information technology, extensible describes something, such as a program, programming language, or protocol, that is designed so that users or developers can expand or add to its capabilities.

  • F

    feature flagging

    Feature flagging is a cost-effective and simple programming method that involves a programming design pattern which allows developers to turn a feature of a software application on or off without having to release or change the code in production.

  • foo (in software programming)

    Foo is a term used by developers as a placeholder when describing an idea or concept.

  • forward compatible

    Forward compatible describes a system that is designed in such a way that it fits with planned future versions of itself.

  • functionality

    In information technology, functionality (from Latin functio meaning "to perform") is the sum or any aspect of what a product, such as a software application or computing device, can do for a user.

  • G

    GDMO (Guidelines for Definition of Managed Objects)

    GDMO (Guidelines for Definition of Managed Objects) is a standard for defining objects in a network in a consistent way.

  • GraphQL

    GraphQL is a query language that allows developers to ask for specific data and return that data from multiple sources through a single API call. The client defines the structure of the data needed, and the server returns the data using the exact same structure.

  • gRPC

    gRPC is a high performance, open source framework developed by Google to handle remote procedure calls (RPCs).

  • I

    IDEF (Integrated Definition)

    IDEF (for Integrated Definition) is a group of modeling methods that can be used to describe operations in an enterprise.

  • interoperability

    Interoperability (pronounced IHN-tuhr-AHP-uhr-uh-BIHL-ih-tee) is the ability of different systems, devices, applications or products to connect and communicate in a coordinated way, without effort from the end user.

  • Istio

    Istio is an independent, open source service mesh technology that enables developers to connect, secure, control, observe and run a distributed microservice architecture (MSA), regardless of platform, source or vendor.

  • J

    Jenkins X

    Jenkins X is an open source system that provides continuous integration (CI), continuous delivery (CD) and automated testing tools designed for cloud-native applications in a Kubernetes environment.

  • K

    Kong

    Kong is an open source API gateway and platform that acts as middleware between compute clients and the API-centric applications.

  • M

    management service provider (MSP)

    Also see two related terms, application service provider and storage service provider.

  • Maven

    Maven is an Apache Software Foundation build tool for project management that automates Java projects.

  • message queueing

    In programming, message queueing is a method by which process (or program instances) can exchange or pass data using an interface to a system-managed queue of messages.

  • message-driven processing

    Message-driven processing is an approach used within the client/server computing model in which a client (for example, your Web browser) sends a service request in the form of a specially-formatted message to a program that acts as a request broker, handling messages from many clients intended for many different server applications.

  • microservices

    Microservices, or microservice architecture, is an approach to application development in which a large application is built as a suite of modular components or services.

  • middleware

    Middleware is software that is used to bridge the gap between applications and other tools or databases.

  • Middleware as a Service (MWaaS)

    Middleware as a Service (MWaaS) is the distribution model wherein middleware is offered as a cloud-based service, rather than as an on-premise solution. It is often offered as part of a cloud-based suite.

  • mobile application development

    Mobile application development is the set of processes and procedures involved in writing software for small, wireless computing devices such as smartphones or tablets.

  • mobile middleware

    Mobile middleware is software that connects disparate mobile applications, programs and systems.

  • N

    native code

    Native code is computer programming (code) that is compiled to run with a particular processor and its set of instructions.

  • non-virtual hosting

    Non-virtual hosting is offering to host a Web site for an Internet user or company within the same domain name as that of the service provider.

  • O

    Apache OpenWhisk

    Apache OpenWhisk is an open source and serverless cloud platform that performs functions in response to events.

  • OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards)

    OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) is a nonprofit, international consortium whose goal is to promote the adoption of product-independent standards for information formats such as Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), Extensible Markup Language (XML), and Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

  • OAuth

    OAuth (Open Authorization) is an open standard authorization framework for token-based authorization on the internet.

  • object

    In object-oriented programming (OOP), objects are the things you think about first in designing a program and they are also the units of code that are eventually derived from the process.

  • Object Management Group (OMG)

    The OMG (Object Management Group) was formed in 1989 by a group of vendors for the purpose of creating a standard architecture for distributed objects (also known as "components") in networks.

  • Object Request Broker (ORB)

    Also see ORBS, a term easily confused with ORB. In Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), an Object Request Broker (ORB) is the programming that acts as a "broker" between a client request for a service from a distributed object or component and the completion of that request.

  • object-oriented programming (OOP)

    Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a computer programming model that organizes software design around data, or objects, rather than functions and logic.

  • OOPSLA (Object-Oriented Programming Systems, Languages and Applications)

    OOPSLA is the annual conference for Object-Oriented Programming Systems, Languages and Applications, sponsored by the SIGPLAN and SIGSOFT groups of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).

  • open API (public API)

    An open API, also known as a public API, is an application programming interface made publicly available to software developers.

  • Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA)

    The Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) is a set of standards defining the way in which information is shared among diverse components of large, heterogeneous grid systems.

  • OpenAPI Specification

    The OpenAPI (OAI) Specification defines a standard, programming language-agnostic interface description for RESTful APIs.

  • P

    parser

    In computer technology, a parser is a program, usually part of a compiler, that receives input in the form of sequential source program instructions, interactive online commands, markup tags, or some other defined interface and breaks them up into parts (for example, the nouns (objects), verbs (methods), and their attributes or options) that can then be managed by other programming (for example, other components in a compiler).

  • polyglot persistence

    Polyglot persistence is an enterprise storage term used to describe choosing different data storage/data stores technologies to support the various data types and their storage needs.

  • PowerBuilder

    PowerBuilder is a popular rapid application development (RAD) tool for buildingobject-oriented programmingclient/serverapplications the parts of which can bedistributedwithin a network.

  • Prometheus

    Prometheus is an open source monitoring and alerting toolkit for microservices and containers that provides flexible queries and real time notifications.

  • R

    React Native

    React Native is an open source JavaScript framework for mobile application development. The framework is based on Facebook’s user interface (UI) JavaScript library, React, and can be used to design apps for the web, iOS and Android.

  • reactive programming

    Reactive programming describes a design paradigm that relies on asynchronous programming logic to handle real-time updates to otherwise static content.

  • reactive systems architecture

    A computer systems paradigm that takes advantage of the responsiveness, flexibility and resiliency of reactive programming, so that various components can take continue to function and even thrive if any component is compromised.

  • refactoring

    Refactoring is "the process of changing a software system in such a way that it does not alter the external behavior of the code yet improves its internal structure," according to Martin Fowler, the "father" of refactoring.

  • Remote Data Objects (RDO)

    RDO (Remote Data Objects) is an application program interface (API) from Microsoft that lets programmers writing Windows applications get access to and from both Microsoft and other database providers.

  • Remote Procedure Call (RPC)

    Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is a protocol that one program can use to request a service from a program located in another computer on a network without having to understand the network's details.

  • Resource Description Framework (RDF)

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a general framework for how to describe any Internet resource such as a Web site and its content.

  • REST (REpresentational State Transfer)

    REST (REpresentational State Transfer) is an architectural style for developing web services. REST is popular due to its simplicity and the fact that it builds upon existing systems and features of the internet's HTTP in order to achieve its objectives, as opposed to creating new standards, frameworks and technologies.

  • RESTful API (REST API)

    A RESTful API is an application program interface (API) that uses HTTP requests to GET, PUT, POST and DELETE data.

  • restricted API

    A restricted API is an application program interface whose access, or use, is intentionally limited by web site developers for security purposes or business reasons.

  • S

    SAX (Simple API for XML)

    SAX (Simple API for XML) is an application program interface (API) that allows a programmer to interpret a Web file that uses the Extensible Markup Language (XML) -- that is, a Web file that describes a collection of data.

  • Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)

    SLIP is a TCP/IP protocol used for communication between two machines that are previously configured for communication with each other.

  • Service Data Objects (SDO)

    Service Data Objects (SDO) is the name of a specification designed to streamline the processing of SOA (service-oriented architecture) data from diverse sources such as XML documents, relational databases and Web services... (Continued)

  • Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM)

    The Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM) is a paradigm developed by IBM that defines the extent to which various services are integrated in a service-oriented architecture (SOA)... (Continued)

  • service-component architecture (SCA)

    Service-component architecture (SCA) is a group of specifications intended for the development of applications based on service-oriented architecture (SOA), which defines how computing entities interact to perform work for each other... (Continued)

  • service-level management

    Service-level management is the monitoring and management of the quality of service(QoS) of an entity's key performance indicators(KPIs).

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